Cameras of that era were too crude to capture the split second when the rules of both Newton and Naismith were bent, so it was fortuitous that New York Times writer Arthur J. Daley was at the Y that day covering the tournament that would decide which Americans sailed to Berlin for the Olympic debut of the 45-year-old sport. This new “version of a lay-up shot,” Daley wrote, “left observers simply flabbergasted. Joe Fortenberry, 6-foot-8-inch center . . . left the floor, reached up and pitched the ball downward into the hoop, much like a cafeteria customer dunking a roll in coffee.”
The boundary for stopping the trial owing to the lack of evidence of a difference between treatments at a P value of 0.05 was crossed (Figure 5 in the Supplementary Appendix). There were no significant differences between the groups in the rate of death at 28 days or in the rates of death in the ICU, in the hospital, at 6 months, or at 12 months (Table 2). Kaplan–Meier curves for estimated survival showed no significant differences in the outcome (Figure 2). Cox proportional-hazards analyses that included the APACHE II score, sex, and other relevant variables yielded similar results (Figure 6 in the Supplementary Appendix). There were more days without need for the trial drug and more days without need for open-label vasopressors in the norepinephrine group than in the dopamine group, but there were no significant differences between the groups in the number of days without need for ICU care and in the number of days without need for organ support (Table 3). There were no significant differences in the causes of death between the two groups, although death from refractory shock occurred more frequently in the group of patients treated with dopamine than in the group treated with norepinephrine (P=0.05).
A second, more efficient and correct method is to use an infrared laser placed at ground level. When an athlete jumps and breaks the plane of the laser with his/her hand, the height at which this occurs is measured. Devices based on United States Patent 5031903, "A vertical jump testing device comprising a plurality of vertically arranged measuring elements each pivotally mounted..." are also common. These devices are used at the highest levels of collegiate and professional performance testing. They are composed of several (roughly 70) 14-inch prongs placed 0.5 inches apart vertically. An athlete will then leap vertically (no running start or step) and make contact with the retractable prongs to mark their leaping ability. This device is used each year at the NFL scouting combine.