A total of 1679 patients were enrolled — 858 in the dopamine group and 821 in the norepinephrine group (Figure 1). All patients were followed to day 28; data on the outcome during the stay in the hospital were available for 1656 patients (98.6%), data on the 6-month outcome for 1443 patients (85.9%), and data on the 12-month outcome for 1036 patients (61.7%). There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to most of the baseline characteristics (Table 1); there were small differences, which were of questionable clinical relevance, in the heart rate, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2). The type of shock that was seen most frequently was septic shock (in 1044 patients [62.2%]), followed by cardiogenic shock (in 280 patients [16.7%]) and hypovolemic shock (in 263 patients [15.7%]). The sources of sepsis are detailed in Table 2 in the Supplementary Appendix. Hydrocortisone was administered in 344 patients who received dopamine (40.1%) and in 326 patients who received norepinephrine (39.7%). Among patients with septic shock, recombinant activated human protein C was administered in 102 patients in the dopamine group (18.8%) and 96 patients in the norepinephrine group (19.1%).

The rate of death at 28 days in this study was close to 50%, which is to be expected in a study with very few exclusion criteria and is similar to the rate in previous observational studies.3,9,21-24 Our trial was a pragmatic study that included all patients who were treated for shock states, and therefore, it has high external validity. The study design allowed for maximal exposure to the study drug, since we included patients who had received open-label vasopressors for a maximum of 4 hours before randomization and since during the 28-day study period, the study drug was withdrawn last when patients were weaned from vasopressor therapies and was resumed first if resumption of vasopressor therapy was necessary.
At the competitive level (i.e., the NFL and NBA combines), vertical leap is measured using a “jump tester”—a tripod with a series of thin plastic sticks one inch apart. If you have access to this equipment, it’s your best bet for getting an accurate measurement. A cheaper, more feasible option is to do your jump next to a wall and mark the highest point you touch with a piece of chalk.
The following data were recorded every 6 hours for 48 hours, every 8 hours on days 3, 4, and 5, and once a day on days 6, 7, 14, 21, and 28: vital signs, hemodynamic variables (including systolic and diastolic arterial pressures, heart rate, central venous pressure, and, when possible, pulmonary-artery pressures), cardiac output, arterial and mixed-venous (or central venous) blood gas levels, doses of vasoactive agents, and respiratory conditions. Biologic variables, data on daily fluid balance, microbiologic data, and antibiotic therapy were recorded daily for the first 7 days and then on days 14, 21, and 28.

When I started to work on the video tool that measures vertical jump, I had to dust off my old textbooks to learn about the relationship between hang time and jump height. And to my surprise, it turned out that the vertical jump is a great (and interesting!) example of the laws of physics at work. You can really learn about the relationship between velocity, acceleration, forces and hang time. Definitely more interesting than the average example of your physics textbook!

Unfortunately, I’m not the 6' 7" son of a Hall of Famer, so I had to resort to desperate devices—like Hennessy, an infamous and inexpensive cognac that, according to one of the two NBA players who recommended it to me, “will give you that Yah! That bounce. That little bit of meanness you need.” The little minibar-sized bottle that I downed 30 minutes into an intense session of dunk attempts on a sweltering day last summer, had no effect other than scorching my esophagus, giving me a headache and releasing from my pores an aura that, as my six-year-old put it that evening, “smells like medicine.”
In this multicenter, randomized trial, we assigned patients with shock to receive either dopamine or norepinephrine as first-line vasopressor therapy to restore and maintain blood pressure. When blood pressure could not be maintained with a dose of 20 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for dopamine or a dose of 0.19 μg per kilogram per minute for norepinephrine, open-label norepinephrine, epinephrine, or vasopressin could be added. The primary outcome was the rate of death at 28 days after randomization; secondary end points included the number of days without need for organ support and the occurrence of adverse events.
On the basis of the results of the SOAP study,3 which showed a rate of death of 43% among patients receiving dopamine and a rate of 36% among patients receiving norepinephrine, we estimated that with 765 patients in each group, the study would have 80% power to show a 15% relative difference in the rate of death at 28 days, at a two-sided alpha level of 0.05.
Single leg jumping with it's high impact forces and dependence on the elasticity of muscles and tendons works best for young athletes. With increasing age, the tendons and muscles lose their elasticity and springiness and the risk of injury gets higher and higher. That's why a lot of basketball players start to rely more and more on their two-foot jump as they get older. And the winner of the Olympic high jumping contest are almost always below 30.
For taxonomic purposes it is an important distinction, but the modifiers discussed below are often considered dunk types in common parlance. This misconception is perhaps attributable to the modifier being the most salient component of the dunk from the perspective of the observer. However, each dunk modifier requires a dunk type to be a successful dunk—albeit the most-basic dunk type.
From Jordan to Lebron, even Yao Ming, nothing elicits more awe and applause than a dunk. As one of the highest percentage field goals one can attempt in basketball, this is a move that's worth mastering. While it doesn't hurt to be taller, you can build up both the muscles and skills required to execute this famous feat on the court, regardless of your height and experience. See Step 1 for more information.

My quest to dunk started poorly. The main problem was that I could only do about half of the very long list of ercises the Jump Manual instructed at the crowded and inadequate YMCA near my place. The basketball court—the only space big enough to do some of the drills—was always occupied with classes. The Strength Shoes, meanwhile, were so absurd that I was too embarrassed to wear them in front of other gym-goers. I used them only a handful of times, in an empty stairwell on the top floor of the gym.

i am 6 foot 2 inches tall, i am in the 8th grade, and i am 13 years old going on 14 in september. I discovered on May 15th that I could hang on the rim at my school with two hands by jogging about 3 steps very very slowly and jumping off both of my feet. I have dunked about 3 times before, but the last couple times I tried, I got "hung" and sent backwards but I managed to keep balance on the way down due to my height. What is my problem? Also after I attempt to dunk about 4 times in a day my shin begins to hurt. Why does this keep happening?

Technique Tip: Determining how far out in front of you to place your front foot may require some trial and error. At the bottom of the motion, your front knee should be somewhere above your heel to mid foot. If your knee is behind your heel, your foot is too far forward; if it’s out over your toes, step out further. One trick to find the right distance is to start in the bottom position and adjust your stance from there. Then stand up and have someone hand you the dumbbells.
Before you take on these vertical jump exercises, spend a few minutes looking over the plyometric section of our website. When you increase your vertical jump, you’re actually altering the nature of your muscle fibers, and our plyometric articles can explain how this works. Meanwhile, keep working on strength-building exercises for your quads, glutes and hips, and remember to keep an eye on any hesitation between your jumps.  
Scaling the back squat for beginner-level athletes generally entails sticking to lighter loads (even bodyweight only to start) while learning proper technique. Goblet squats with a kettlebell or dumbbell can be used to practice form, but keep in mind that goblets are an anterior (front-loaded) variation and won’t directly mimic the mechanics of the back squat.
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Darryl Dawkins of the Philadelphia 76ers was notorious for two glass-shattering dunks in 1979 resulting in the league threatening to fine him and eventually installing breakaway rims.[42] Twice in his rookie season (1992–93) during games, center Shaquille O'Neal dunked so hard that he broke the hydraulic support of one goal standard (against the Phoenix Suns) and broke the welds holding up another goal standard, causing the basket to break off and fall to the floor (against the New Jersey Nets), although in neither case did the glass break. This resulted in reinforced backboard supports as well. During that same season, New Jersey's Chris Morris shattered a backboard in a game against the Chicago Bulls (the most recent shattered-backboard incident in the NBA to date). The NBA has made shattering the backboard a technical foul, although it will not count towards a player's count of seven that can draw a suspension, or two towards ejection from a game, and it counts towards a player's count of six personal fouls. This has assisted in deterring this action, as it can cost the team points.
these shocks make a big difference in handling and ride on the2015 4wd F250. This will make the suspension work rather than the whole vehicle simply shuddering up and down over small bumps and holes in the road. Tires stay in contact with road, suspension moves, you and the seat stay still, what a concept! OEM shocks don't even move once compressed, pityful. You will need an 18 mm wrench or socket for lower shock mount bolts and a 21 mm open end, box end or deep socket for the top mount nut and a 20mm or adjustable wrench for the shaft bolt on the top mount. Once the old shocks are off, you need a 19mm open end or socket for the Bilstein top mount nut and you hold the shaft from moving with a hex key, in my experience I didn't really need that but you may want to. Check the top of the shaft you'll see a hex hole up there, seems like it was a 6mm but don't hold me to that. Forget any jacking, removing tires, etc to do this it isn't necessary, and much safer with wheels on the ground while you are under there. If you need some space I drove the wheel I was working on over a 2x12 and that gave me a little height to work with. I wasn't in the mood to fool with jacks, jack stands and all that. No need to. Just crank the steering wheel over away from the side you are working on and you'll have plenty of room. The only issue is after attaching the lower shock mounts using the OEM 18mm bolt/nut, you need to compress the shock about 3" to get it into the upper mounting hole. I used a common tie down racheting strap for this job. I hooked one hook to the chassis right under the lower shock mount bracket on the truck and after adjusting the strap length I put the upper hook around the top shock rubber grommet and washer (lower one already installed now, put upper ones on after shock is in place, of course). At this point you just crank the rachet on the strap until the shock compresses a few inches and shove the shaft under the mounting hole, release the rachet and up pops the shock into place. Put on upper grommet and washer, tighten 19mm nut and presto! IF the shaft turns while you tighten this nut hold the shaft still with the hex key mentioned earlier. Your truck is now a better place to be. Also just tighten upper nut until the grommet fills or slightly goes outside the washer, don't crank it down and flatten the grommet. If you aren't sure look at the OEM arrangement for an idea on how tight to go with that nut. Happy motoring !!

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“There’s something about dunking a basketball that lures us in,” he said, reflecting on his first jam, during lunch period his sophomore year at De La Salle High in Concord, Calif., back when his driver’s license read 5' 11", 112 pounds. “It stokes the imagination. It’s something you always dream of doing. I have a friend whose father, at age 50, is trying to dunk.”
after a certain age dunking becomes quite difficult to gain during the prime years 12 to 21 your body is still growing so it is easier to gain to muscle and muscle fiber to be able to dunk if you are quite short below 6ft it requires great effort to get the height to dunk the only exercises i suggest are one footed Calf Raises you can find how to do them on you tube and squats i was recommended these exercises by the Glasgow rocks coach and player Sterling Davis hope that helps i am 6ft myself and learning to dunk has been a long road and still going because i am only grabbing the rim now any more questions feel no fear to send me an email
But you know what? Because these help with your jumping, you will become an amazing rebounder, blocker, and, well, dunker! In 2016, according to MaxPreps, I was 14 in the country in average blocks per game (National Basketball (2016-17) Blocks Stat Leaders, I’m 14th ;P). I had two triple-doubles. No, not points, rebounds, and assists, but points, rebounds, and BLOCKS.

A Tomahawk dunk can be performed with one or two hands, and when two hands are used, it is called a backscratcher. During the jump, the ball is raised above, and often behind the player's head for a wind-up before slamming the ball down into the net at the apex of the jump. Due to the undemanding body mechanics involved in execution, the tomahawk is employed by players of all sizes and jumping abilities.[citation needed] Because of the ball-security provided by the use of both hands, the two-handed tomahawk is a staple of game situations—frequently employed in alley-oops and in offense-rebound put-back dunks.
James Naismith, I learned, was a bit different. “I was only three when he passed away [in 1939],” said his grandson, James Naismith, 78, of Corpus Christi, Texas. “He was known as a tenderhearted man, but he also had”—the doctor’s namesake pauses—“the polite term is ‘firmness of mind.’ It’s kind of a family trait. He devoted his life to improving the lives of others through physical activity, through games. That took time.
High-Reach Jumps – Are similar to tuck jumps, but instead of brining your knees to your chest, you just reach as high as you can. This is done best under a basketball ring or near a wall so that you can tell how much lower your reach becomes as you fatigue. Try to reach the same height through all repetitions. if you don’t have anything to measure against, that’s fine. Just jump as high as you can each repetition.