Data on hemodynamic variables and doses of vasoactive agents are shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 in the Supplementary Appendix. The mean arterial pressure was similar in the two treatment groups at baseline, and it changed similarly over time, although it was slightly higher from 12 to 24 hours in the norepinephrine group. The doses of the study drug were similar in the two groups at all times. More patients in the dopamine group than in the norepinephrine group required open-label norepinephrine therapy at some point (26% vs. 20%, P<0.001), but the doses of open-label norepinephrine that were administered were similar in the two groups. The use of open-label epinephrine at any time was similar in the two groups (administered in 3.5% of patients in the dopamine group and in 2.3% of those in the norepinephrine group, P=0.10), as was the use of vasopressin (0.2% in both groups, P=0.67). Dobutamine was used more frequently in patients treated with norepinephrine, but 12 hours after randomization, the doses of dobutamine were significantly higher in patients treated with dopamine. The mean (±SD) time to the achievement of a mean arterial pressure of 65 mm Hg was similar in the two groups (6.3±5.6 hours in the dopamine group and 6.0±4.9 hours in the norepinephrine group, P=0.35). There were no major between-group differences in the total amounts of fluid given, although patients in the dopamine group received more fluids on day 1 than did patients in the norepinephrine group. Urine output was significantly higher during the first 24 hours after randomization among patients in the dopamine group than among those in the norepinephrine group, but this difference eventually disappeared, so that the fluid balance was quite similar between the two groups.
A vital part of basketball training is improving your vertical leap. As an athlete, you should be incorporating exercises into your basketball drills and fitness training that focus on increasing muscle strength and leg speed. Simply put, you won’t turn into Vince Carter or Andre Iguodala overnight, but learning how to work the appropriate muscles on a daily basis will go a far way towards improving your overall vertical.
This book is just a glimpse of some of the great workouts, and outcomes of the workouts he has to offer. Right now I am in the middle of his Twice The Speed workout AND Vertical Jump Cure (found in the back of the book), and it is defiantly something you need to checkout if you like what this book offers. But not only does he have vertical jump workouts or speed workouts but he has nutrition guides, flexibility cure, and many other bonuses.
This calculator tells you how much you need to jump to dunk a basketball. It will also give you an estimated force required to jump that high. The more you bent your knees the less force you'll need but you will need a lot of energy to take you from that position to the top. You can increase your vertical by training your legs to be able to deliver that much force.
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A more accurate method would be to use a Jump Tester (like these here.) The problem with these, obviously, is that they are way too expensive. In fact, the only scenario in which I recommend using one of these is if you’re a coach, trainer, or athletic director who is purchasing it to test a large number of athletes over time and who needs as accurate of a number as possible for scouting purposes.
When an individual has a force-velocity gradient angled such that force is too high and velocity is too low, they benefit most from high-velocity strength training exercises with light loads. Conversely, when an individual has a force-velocity gradient angled such that force is too low and velocity is too high, they benefit most from low-velocity strength training exercises with heavy loads. Often, individuals with a long history of heavy strength training display profiles that are not ideal for vertical jumping, because their force is too high, and their velocity is too low, so they need to focus on high-velocity strength training.
Because jumping ability is a combination of leg strength and explosive power, jumping can be developed in the same fashion as any other muscular activity. The ultimate limit to how high any athlete can jump will be determined to a significant degree by the distribution of fast-twitch versus slow-twitch fibers present in the muscles of the legs. This distribution is a genetic determination. Fast-twitch fibers are those whose governing neurons, the component of the nervous system that receives the impulses generated by the brain to direct muscular movement, fires more rapidly, which in turn creates the more rapid muscle contractions required for speed. As a general proposition, an athlete with a greater distribution of fast-twitch fibers will be able jump higher than one with a preponderance of slow-twitch fibers.
Of course, these forces increase linearly with increasing body weight. Therefore Olympic high-jumpers are usually build more like marathon runners and less like football players. Every unnecessary pound adds to the forces during take-off, and at some point the muscles and tendons of the jumping leg are just not strong enough any more to support all the weight.
Vertical jumps are used to both train and test for power output in athletes. Plyometrics are particularly effective in training for power output, and include vertical jumps of different types in their protocol. In one recent study, training with plyometrics (which included continuous vertical jumps) was shown to improve jump height and boost vertical jump performance to similar degrees in combination with very different resistance training protocols, indicating that the plyometric jumping contributed to the increased jump height more than resistance training. Research into plyometric jumps found vertical jumps to be among the highest in terms of muscle recruitment (as measured by electromyography), power output, and ground reaction force produced. Fatigue has been researched in athletes for its effect on vertical jump performance, and found to decrease it in basketball players, tennis players, cyclists, rugby players, and healthy adults of both genders.