The force-velocity relationship during muscle shortening occurs because the number of simultaneously attached crossbridges between the myofilaments inside the working muscle fibers determine the amount of force that a fiber can produce. The number of attached crossbridges at any one time is dependent upon the fiber shortening velocity, because the detachment rate of the crossbridges at the end of their working stroke is higher at faster shortening speeds.

slang To be bested by someone in a spectacular fashion and/or in a way that is humiliating to one. In basketball, to "dunk on" a defender is to perform a slam dunk over them, a move often considered humiliating to the defender. Here's the part of the debate where she really got dunked on&he totally destroys her argument! Sit down, son, you just got dunked on.
Then, in terms of exercises, you really need to get your whole body stronger. You need to improve your core, and obviously you need to improve your legs. So someone who is interested in jumping higher will find themselves doing a lot of squats. And I would suggest that if someone just started this, they could do a lot of squat exercises without even going to the gym or even bearing weight. You know, get up in their office cubicle and do ten squats. Three sets of ten reps of squats is a good workout.
Since the magnitude of the effect derived from observational studies can be misleading, we opted for a sequential trial design with two-sided alternatives20; the trial design called for analyses to be performed after inclusion of the first 50 and 100 patients, and then after inclusion of each additional 100 patients, and allowed for the discontinuation of the trial according to the following predefined boundaries: superiority of norepinephrine over dopamine, superiority of dopamine over norepinephrine, or no difference between the two. An independent statistician who is also a physician monitored the efficacy analyses and the adverse events; on October 6, 2007, after analysis of the outcome in the first 1600 patients showed that one of the three predefined boundaries had been crossed, the statistician advised that the trial be stopped.
I sent a video of my soccer ball dunk to Todd, the #fivefivedunker, who informed me that I was leading with the wrong leg. I’d been taking my last big step with my left foot, which, as a righty, was like swinging a bat cross-handed. A few days later I encountered a blogger and 43-year-old dunker named Andy Nicholson who showed me, among many other things, that I wasn’t the only one with blood on my hands. Nicholson was one of dozens of YouTubers, young and old (mostly young), who were documenting online their attempts to dunk. “Yes!” he yelled over the phone when I told him about the open sores on my fingers. “Those are badges of honor!”
variations: The vertical jump test can also be performed using a specialized apparatus called the Vertec. The procedure when using the Vertec is very similar to as described above. Jump height can also be measured using a jump mat which measures the displacement of the hips. To be accurate, you must ensure the feet land back on the mat with legs nearly fully extended. Vertical jump height can also be measured using a timing mat. The vertical jump test is usually performed with a counter movement, where there is bending of the knees immediately prior to the jump. The test can also be performed as a squat jump, starting from the position of knees being bent. Other test variations are to perform the test with no arm movement (one hand on hip, the other raised above the head) to isolate the leg muscles and reduce the effect of variations in coordination of the arm movements. The test can also be performed off one leg, with a step into the jump, or with a run-up off two feet or one foot, depending on the relevance to the sport involved. For more details see vertical jump technique.
Muscular strength and explosiveness must be developed in conjunction with flexibility if the athlete is to maximize the jumping ability and reduce the risk of injury to structures such as the Achilles tendon and knee ligaments. Flexibility, when achieved through focused stretching programs, will serve to increase the range of motion in the joints essential to jumping: the ankles, knees, and hips. A common muscular deficiency that plagues athletes who require well-developed leaping ability is a lack of flexibility and resultant strength imbalance between the quadriceps (thigh) muscles and the hamstrings, the pair of muscles responsible for the flexion and the extension of the knee. Proper stretching will assist the athlete in the maintenance of an approximate 3:2 ratio in the relative strength of the quadriceps to the hamstring. When there is a significant deviation from that proportion, the knee and the muscles themselves are at greater risk of injury.
Since the magnitude of the effect derived from observational studies can be misleading, we opted for a sequential trial design with two-sided alternatives20; the trial design called for analyses to be performed after inclusion of the first 50 and 100 patients, and then after inclusion of each additional 100 patients, and allowed for the discontinuation of the trial according to the following predefined boundaries: superiority of norepinephrine over dopamine, superiority of dopamine over norepinephrine, or no difference between the two. An independent statistician who is also a physician monitored the efficacy analyses and the adverse events; on October 6, 2007, after analysis of the outcome in the first 1600 patients showed that one of the three predefined boundaries had been crossed, the statistician advised that the trial be stopped.
Overall, 309 patients (18.4%) had an arrhythmia; the most common type of arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation, which occurred in 266 patients (86.1%). More patients had an arrhythmia, especially atrial fibrillation, in the dopamine group than in the norepinephrine group (Table 3). The study drug was discontinued in 65 patients owing to severe arrhythmias — 52 patients (6.1%) in the dopamine group and 13 patients (1.6%) in the norepinephrine group (P<0.001). These patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of other adverse events.

I think it’s the sort of thing that a lot of kids probably fantasize about, me included. Just like you might want to become an astronaut or something like that. I was always one of the tallest kids in my class, but I never really tried to dunk. And so as an adult, you start wondering a little bit about what sorts of things you left on the table, that you never really tried your hand at. And I got it into my head that I’d pick up this childhood fantasy of mine and see if I could dunk.


I gave myself ten weeks to dunk again. It wasn’t going to be easy: I figured I’d need to add five or six inches to my vertical in order to dunk a regulation basketball. I was in half-decent shape, and at six-foot-three, I had height on my side. But I had a few things other than age working against me—namely feet that had flattened over the years to canoe paddles, and an ankle injury I’d never properly rehabbed.

The trial included 1679 patients, of whom 858 were assigned to dopamine and 821 to norepinephrine. The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of death at 28 days (52.5% in the dopamine group and 48.5% in the norepinephrine group; odds ratio with dopamine, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.42; P=0.10). However, there were more arrhythmic events among the patients treated with dopamine than among those treated with norepinephrine (207 events [24.1%] vs. 102 events [12.4%], P<0.001). A subgroup analysis showed that dopamine, as compared with norepinephrine, was associated with an increased rate of death at 28 days among the 280 patients with cardiogenic shock but not among the 1044 patients with septic shock or the 263 with hypovolemic shock (P=0.03 for cardiogenic shock, P=0.19 for septic shock, and P=0.84 for hypovolemic shock, in Kaplan–Meier analyses).
Stand with your feet shoulder-width apart. Keeping your back straight, bend at your knees and hips as if you are attempting to sit in a chair until your thighs are parallel with the floor. Simultaneously extend your arms straight out in front of you. From this position jump up, straighten your legs and swing your arms back down to the side of your body. Repeat 25 jumping squats in a row for three sets with a 1-minute break between sets.

Any athlete who wants to maximize the height of their vertical jump should look to reduce their non-functional body weight (body fat) as much as possible. Though it's generally not recommended for youth athletes to go on a calorie-restricted diet, they should look to make healthy food choices. A good starting point for this is 40% of calories from carbohydrates, 30% from protein, and 30% from fats.
With less than 2 minutes remaining, and the Grizzlies leading, 72-70, Pistons power forward Henry Ellenson appeared to have an easy dunk to tie the game. — Vince Ellis, Detroit Free Press, "Jaren Jackson Jr.'s weary Sunday caps fabulous NBA Summer League week," 9 July 2018 The high-energy guy in Game 1 was JaVale McGee, who scored a couple of times but also had a wide-open dunk blocked by the rim. — Bruce Jenkins, SFChronicle.com, "It was a grim scene inside the Cavs’ locker room after Game 1 loss to Warriors," 1 June 2018 When Bleacher Report posted a photo on Instagram about Wade wanting LeBron to sign a photo of their iconic pass and dunk in Miami, Chalmers chimed in on the comment section and took credit for the play. — Andrew Joseph, For The Win, "Mario Chalmers got busted after taking credit for iconic Wade-LeBron play," 22 May 2018 The game opened with George Hill having two dunks for the Cavs in the first three minutes. — Terry Pluto, cleveland.com, "Cleveland Cavaliers sweeping victory reason to be excited -- Terry Pluto (photos)," 7 May 2018 Insider: Why a graduate transfer makes sense for Archie Miller, IU basketball His top highlight of the night was a dunk in the second half that rattled the rim. — Dakota Crawford, Indianapolis Star, "Romeo Langford gets McDonald's All American Game viewers fired up with highlight plays," 28 Mar. 2018 There was still 2:41 left in the first quarter when Poly sophomore forward Justin Lewis had a rim-rattling dunk in the No. 4 Engineers’ Class 3A state semifinal against Stephen Decatur on Thursday night. — Glenn Graham, baltimoresun.com, "Record-setting Mims leads No. 4 Poly past Stephen Decatur, 63-46, and into 3A state title game," 9 Mar. 2018 At the center of it all was Wooten, who matched a career-high in blocks, had several highlight-worthy dunks and jumped completely over Payton Pritchard at one point pursuing another block. — Tyson Alger, OregonLive.com, "Kenny Wooten and Troy Brown spark dramatic turnaround in Oregon's win over Washington," 8 Feb. 2018 McDaniels flashed across the baseline, collected Watson’s pass and hammered home a dunk in the 85-49 final at Viejas Arena. — Bryce Miller, sandiegouniontribune.com, "Aztecs season has chance to be defined by unflappable freshman McDaniels," 9 Jan. 2018
Cameras of that era were too crude to capture the split second when the rules of both Newton and Naismith were bent, so it was fortuitous that New York Times writer Arthur J. Daley was at the Y that day covering the tournament that would decide which Americans sailed to Berlin for the Olympic debut of the 45-year-old sport. This new “version of a lay-up shot,” Daley wrote, “left observers simply flabbergasted. Joe Fortenberry, 6-foot-8-inch center . . . left the floor, reached up and pitched the ball downward into the hoop, much like a cafeteria customer dunking a roll in coffee.”

Dunking isn't for everybody, but many men at least have a chance at pulling it off. Even so, it depends on a lot of variables for those on the fringe. Many guys have excess weight that keep them grounded. Some days your legs just aren't up to it. Other days, you don't have the right shoes on, or a certain basketball is hard to grip, or a past injury is hampering you. Little things like that can keep you from basketball glory when you're oh-so-close to throwing down.
The opening scene finds Modern Messiah Malcolm Stevens (the tragically deceased Jon Dough recreating his career-defining character) back in his familiar padded cell. Out of thin air, his lost lady love Gwen (Jeanna Fine, resplendent in stylized Marilyn Monroe Kabuki make-up) appears as an echo of the original's psychiatric theory that Stevens concocted his entire past out of years of transfixed TV ogling à la Jim Carrey's CABLE GUY. This proves to be the film's first of many technical knockouts, shot in black and white complete with scratches and splices to suggest an old movie, the tiniest splash of pink occurring as Jeanna vibrates herself into a frenzy. Malcolm still has a problem projecting himself into his own fantasies and is, at first almost subliminally, replaced by tattooed muscle boy John Decker, the mesmerizing lead from Paul Thomas' terrific MARISSA.
I continued to follow the program for the next few weeks, and I was dunking fairly regularly. I got a friend to film me, and then bored everyone I knew by showing them the video for weeks on end, like a proud father of my own dunk. Each one was the same: I could only do it after a couple days’ rest, and only with a ball I could palm. I approached from the left, jumped off two feet, and dunked with my right hand. There would be no cocked-back, in-your-face, two-handed throw downs; no acrobatic Russell Westbrook highlight reel slams.
Other obstruction-dunks are worth noting: Haneef Munir performed a Dubble-Up, dunking with his right-hand and then caught and dunked a second ball with his left hand—a yet to be duplicated dunk pioneered by Jordan Kilganon on a lower, non-regulation rim. Jordan Kilganon, a Canadian athlete, approached from the baseline a person standing, holding the ball above their head. Kilganon leaped, controlled the ball in front of his torso and raised it above the horizontal plane of the rim before bringing the ball downward into the hoop and hooking both elbows on and hanging from the rim.

Try calf raises for an easy way to exercise your calves. In a standing position, push on the balls of your feet while raising your heels so that you’re standing on your toes. Hold this position for 1-3 seconds, then slowly lower yourself back down to starting position. Do 10 reps, or as many as you can, and do as many sets as needed to complete 30 reps overall.[4]


The force-velocity relationship during muscle shortening occurs because the number of simultaneously attached crossbridges between the myofilaments inside the working muscle fibers determine the amount of force that a fiber can produce. The number of attached crossbridges at any one time is dependent upon the fiber shortening velocity, because the detachment rate of the crossbridges at the end of their working stroke is higher at faster shortening speeds.

Another aspect to look at for any potential dunkers is flexibility. I'm about 6'4 and 21. In high school, I, like many of you on here, worked on jumping and lifting to gain power. I had some decent strength, but the flexibility of a toothpick. Once I got out of high school and got more interested in fitness, I saw how much that affected me. If you can't touch your toes or only squat 8 inches down, this is a great place to start working on your flexibility.
A great summary of what it takes to improve vertical jumping ability Joe. There is definitely an art and science to optimizing vertical jump height. I actually just completed a huge post on the topic of How To Jump Higher which your readers may find complements this post nicely. It is a long read (12000+ words) but for those of your readers who want to learn more about the art of jumping they may find it helpful. Keep up the great work!
This is a high quality gear set for the next generation recoil shock series.  They only use one gear set through out the entire range, so this will fit all NEXT gen guns. This is a extremely well made piece of kit, This is possibly one of the strongest gear sets on the market, i would say the main benefit over other gear sets is its tuning option, you can by it in both single torque which is a little over the standard gear ratio and the double torque which is a lot over the standard ratio. Both provide increased torque up on the gun ie less effort to turn the spring, which in turn gives you increased battery life and and faster trigger response, sacrificing a little ROF. Although technically they should see a decrease in ROF because of the ratio, ive actually seen increases in ROF because of how efficient these gears are and because they are balanced.  Expensive gears but a very awesome piece of kit if these where cheaper they would no doubt be in ever ones guns.. no exceptions.
An important component of maximizing height in a vertical jump is attributed to the use of counter-movements of the legs and arm swings prior to take off, as both of these actions have been shown to significantly increase the body’s center of mass rise. The counter-movement of the legs, a quick bend of the knees which lowers the center of mass prior to springing upwards, has been shown to improve jump height by 12% compared to jumping without the counter-movement. This is attributed to the stretch shortening cycle of the leg muscles enabling the muscles to create more contractile energy. Furthermore, jump height can be increased another 10% by executing arm swings during the take off phase of the jump compared to if no arm swings are utilized. This involves lowering the arms distally and posteriorly during the leg counter-movements, and powerfully thrusting the arms up and over the head as the leg extension phase begins. As the arms complete the swinging movement they pull up on the lower body causing the lower musculature to contract more rapidly, hence aiding in greater jump height.[5] Despite these increases due to technical adjustments, it appears as if optimizing both the force producing and elastic properties of the musculotendinous system in the lower limbs is largely determined by genetics and partially mutable through resistance exercise training.[6][7]
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