Sports scientist are able to measure these ground reaction forces with a technology called force plates. These plates record the exact forces occurring during a vertical jump (or any other movement) and allow you to see how quickly athletes can produce forces, how large these forces are, and to expose potential imbalances between the left and right leg.
A predefined subgroup analysis was conducted according to the type of shock — septic shock, which occurred in 1044 patients (542 in the dopamine group and 502 in the norepinephrine group); cardiogenic shock, which occurred in 280 patients (135 in the dopamine group and 145 in the norepinephrine group); or hypovolemic shock, which occurred in 263 patients (138 in the dopamine group and 125 in the norepinephrine group). The overall effect of treatment did not differ significantly among these subgroups (P=0.87 for interaction), although the rate of death at 28 days was significantly higher among patients with cardiogenic shock who were treated with dopamine than among those with cardiogenic shock who were treated with norepinephrine (P=0.03) (Figure 3). The Kaplan–Meier curves for the subgroup analysis according to type of shock are shown in Figure 7 in the Supplementary Appendix.
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Single leg jumping with it's high impact forces and dependence on the elasticity of muscles and tendons works best for young athletes. With increasing age, the tendons and muscles lose their elasticity and springiness and the risk of injury gets higher and higher. That's why a lot of basketball players start to rely more and more on their two-foot jump as they get older. And the winner of the Olympic high jumping contest are almost always below 30.
The two-hand backscratcher finish can exert tremendous force on the basket. In 1979, Darryl Dawkins twice shattered NBA backboards with tomahawk dunks leading to a quickly-enacted rule making it an offence to break the backboard.[citation needed] Technology has evolved to adapt to the increased strength and weight of players to withstand the force of such dunks, such as the breakaway rim (introduced to the NBA in 1981) changes to the material used for the backboards, and strengthening of the goal standards themselves.
Go between the legs. While he wasn't the first player to complete it, Vince Carter wowed crowds at the 2000 NBA dunk contest by passing the ball under one leg while in the air and slamming it with authority. It didn't hurt that his forehead was almost touching the rim. If you've worked your ups to that height, try passing it under one leg and dunking it.
Single leg jumping with it's high impact forces and dependence on the elasticity of muscles and tendons works best for young athletes. With increasing age, the tendons and muscles lose their elasticity and springiness and the risk of injury gets higher and higher. That's why a lot of basketball players start to rely more and more on their two-foot jump as they get older. And the winner of the Olympic high jumping contest are almost always below 30.

If the patient was already being treated with a vasopressor at baseline, that agent was replaced as soon as possible with the trial-drug solution. If the patient was already receiving dopamine and this agent could not be discontinued after introduction of the trial-drug solution, the dopamine was replaced with an open-label norepinephrine infusion. Open-label dopamine was not allowed at any time. Epinephrine and vasopressin were used only as rescue therapy. Inotropic agents could be used, if needed, to increase cardiac output.
The force-velocity relationship during muscle shortening occurs because the number of simultaneously attached crossbridges between the myofilaments inside the working muscle fibers determine the amount of force that a fiber can produce. The number of attached crossbridges at any one time is dependent upon the fiber shortening velocity, because the detachment rate of the crossbridges at the end of their working stroke is higher at faster shortening speeds.
I learned that insects are fucking awesome. There was an insect in particular that I was interested in called the froghopper, or spittlebug, that is basically one of the world’s top jumpers. It’s a survival mechanism. It can jump far, far higher than we can as a function of its weight, basically. So I learned that humans are quite modest in the jumping scheme of things.
The baseline dunk is an approach-modifier of any dunk type in which the player approaches the basket along the court-boundary (baseline) which runs parallel with the backboard. In the game setting, the dunk often comes as the result of a pass, creating an assist opportunity for a teammate. In the contest, the baseline approach may be used as a means of convenience, facilitating a particular dunk type (e.g., passes bounced off the side of the backboard or its padding) or to increase the difficulty of a dunk type in hopes of meriting higher scores.
The following data were recorded every 6 hours for 48 hours, every 8 hours on days 3, 4, and 5, and once a day on days 6, 7, 14, 21, and 28: vital signs, hemodynamic variables (including systolic and diastolic arterial pressures, heart rate, central venous pressure, and, when possible, pulmonary-artery pressures), cardiac output, arterial and mixed-venous (or central venous) blood gas levels, doses of vasoactive agents, and respiratory conditions. Biologic variables, data on daily fluid balance, microbiologic data, and antibiotic therapy were recorded daily for the first 7 days and then on days 14, 21, and 28.
If you make these few exercises a part of your basketball training, you’ll be well on your way to increasing the height of your vertical jump. Be sure to measure your jump height regularly in order to track your progress -- set goals for yourself each week and remain committed. Before long, you’ll be jumping higher and seeing noticeable improvements in your basketball game.
There's another twist that will really make you reconsider all that you have just witnessed, somewhat akin to the final revelation in Terry Gilliam's 12 MONKEYS. Apparently definitive at first, the ending proves considerably more ambiguous the more it sinks in. Initially introduced as a potential Savior, a paragon of good if not virtue, Stevens has transformed into more of a devil this time, showing his true colors once he has entrapped a defenseless soul in the spider's web of his omnipotent mind. The "message" seems to be that, in the not too distant future, evil rules simply because we have stopped believing in concepts like good and evil, allowing free reign to the strongest and worst of the two. The key to understanding SHOCK lies in one of the most memorable movie lines from THE USUAL SUSPECTS as Kevin Spacey's unforgettably named Verbal Kint suggest that "the greatest trick the devil ever pulled, was convincing the world he didn't exist." I rest my case. Over to you...

The first thing they have to do is improve their flexibility, for a couple of reasons. They need to be flexible to undertake the kind of exercises they need to be able to jump higher. They also just need to be able to increase their flexibility, because in the short sprints you take when you try to dunk a basketball, if you can imagine yourself running up to try to dunk on the rim, the higher you can bring your knees in a sprint, just like a sprinter running the hundred meters, the greater force you’ll be able to exert on the ground, especially with your leaping step.

No, I think there’s a practical aspect to that. It’s hard to grip a basketball. I mean, that’s another physical challenge. I have pretty small hands, and one thing I had to train myself to do, which I couldn’t do at the start of this project, is palm a basketball. So that involved fingertip push-ups, to get the tips of your fingers much stronger. It involves, while hanging out and watching television, trying to palm a basketball for as long as you can. You want to get into a quick, full sprint, and you want to be able to grip the basketball as you go up to jam it. So doing those things can be a challenge. That’s partly what’s behind people doing the alley-oop-type things or throwing it up off the backboard. In some cases, they simply can’t grip the ball on the way to the hoop, so their solution is to throw it in the air, catch it, and try to bring it down.

A predefined subgroup analysis was conducted according to the type of shock — septic shock, which occurred in 1044 patients (542 in the dopamine group and 502 in the norepinephrine group); cardiogenic shock, which occurred in 280 patients (135 in the dopamine group and 145 in the norepinephrine group); or hypovolemic shock, which occurred in 263 patients (138 in the dopamine group and 125 in the norepinephrine group). The overall effect of treatment did not differ significantly among these subgroups (P=0.87 for interaction), although the rate of death at 28 days was significantly higher among patients with cardiogenic shock who were treated with dopamine than among those with cardiogenic shock who were treated with norepinephrine (P=0.03) (Figure 3). The Kaplan–Meier curves for the subgroup analysis according to type of shock are shown in Figure 7 in the Supplementary Appendix.


Though improving jumping technique may add a couple inches to an athlete's vertical jump, good landing technique is even more crucial. The landing is when almost every jumping-related injury occurs, not the jump itself. For this reason, athletes should spend a significant amount of time learning to land in a balanced position that distributes the impact of the jump equally across all joints of the lower body. This position should look almost identical to the take-off position.
Sports scientist are able to measure these ground reaction forces with a technology called force plates. These plates record the exact forces occurring during a vertical jump (or any other movement) and allow you to see how quickly athletes can produce forces, how large these forces are, and to expose potential imbalances between the left and right leg.
During the 1940s and 1950s, 7-foot center and Olympic gold medalist Bob Kurland was dunking regularly during games.[7] Yet defenders viewed the execution of a slam dunk as a personal affront that deserved retribution; thus defenders often intimidated offensive players and thwarted the move. Satch Sanders, a career Boston Celtic from 1960 to 1973, said:

Stand on the bottom step of a flight of stairs holding the railing on either side. Place the balls of your feet on the stair with your heels hanging off the edge. Slowly raise your heels as high as you can, and hold for two seconds. Slowly lower your heels below your toe level, and hold for two seconds. Repeat calf raises exercise 20 times for three sets with a 1-minute break between each set.
There's another twist that will really make you reconsider all that you have just witnessed, somewhat akin to the final revelation in Terry Gilliam's 12 MONKEYS. Apparently definitive at first, the ending proves considerably more ambiguous the more it sinks in. Initially introduced as a potential Savior, a paragon of good if not virtue, Stevens has transformed into more of a devil this time, showing his true colors once he has entrapped a defenseless soul in the spider's web of his omnipotent mind. The "message" seems to be that, in the not too distant future, evil rules simply because we have stopped believing in concepts like good and evil, allowing free reign to the strongest and worst of the two. The key to understanding SHOCK lies in one of the most memorable movie lines from THE USUAL SUSPECTS as Kevin Spacey's unforgettably named Verbal Kint suggest that "the greatest trick the devil ever pulled, was convincing the world he didn't exist." I rest my case. Over to you...
If anything came to surprise me about this journey, it was the sheer volume of physical pain involved. I had taken on impressive physical feats before. I had run a sub-3:30 marathon back in 2003 (my first and only attempt) after put­ting in the hundreds of training miles required. I’d done some of the most grueling weight training on offer, most of it either on the beach or at The Yard, a nearby temple of athletic performance where Maria Sharapova, Kobe Bryant and Tom Brady, among many others, have kneeled with exhaustion. But the physical toll of trying to dunk made the marathon and the semipro football and the parenting and everything else I’d ever attempted seem like mere rubber band snaps to the wrist. The lifting didn’t hurt as much as the jumping, the banging of my quadragenarian appendages into the ground, taking off and landing 50 to 200 times a day. My legs never got used to this bludgeoning, never got better at recovering from it, despite my daily foam-rollering, stretching, icing and hydrating. Even on my off days, a quick game of tag with my kids or a bike ride to the park meant daggers in my thighs and a gait like Fred Sanford’s.
During the takeoff an athlete generates forces that ultimately result in a vertical velocity high enough to leave the ground. We have shown before, that this vertical velocity reaches 0 at the peak of the jump, and it is easy to show that the velocity is exactly the same during landing as it was during takeoff (but directed in the opposite direction).
My son asked me to get book to help improve his jump and was thrilled with the terrific tips it gave him. According to him, this book covers all the important basics and is a must-read for anyone looking to increase their athletic performance. The exercises are described in a clear, easy to follow manner...and now that I've read it as well I'm happy to say, I understand more of what my son is always going on about! ;)
Dunk types reflect the various motions performed on the way to the basket. They start with the basic one- or two-hand forward-facing dunk and go on through various levels of athleticism and intricacy. Discrete dunk types can be modified by appending other moves; for example, a player who passes the ball off the backboard, catches it in the air, and executes a double-pump dunk would be said to have completed a "self-pass off the backboard, double pump".
My early efforts were clumsy. Jumping willy-nilly as high as I could, with no regard for technique, I occasionally felt my finger graze the underside of the rim. Most times I did not. What I did feel early on was a firm self-awareness­ that I was a two-foot jumper (like Spud Webb, Dominique Wilkins, Vince Carter and myriad NBA Slam Dunk champions with whom I have nothing else in common athletically) as opposed to a one-foot jumper (see: Julius Erving, Clyde Drexler, Michael Jordan). This meant that my best shot at dunking would be to elevate like an outside hitter in volleyball—that is, by stepping forward with one foot, quickly planting my trailing foot next to it and then propelling myself upward off both.
Also, using the lifting (concentric) phase of these exercises only, rather than both lowering and lifting phases, *might* further improve results. This is partly because lifting phases involve faster rate coding, and partly because this strategy might potentially help avoid optimizing stretch-shortening cycle function for lifting heavy weights, rather than for jumping.

This list of movements was compiled by a pair of trainers who know a thing or two about making athletes more explosive: Jason Benguche, assistant strength and conditioning coach for the Carolina Panthers (@movement_mogul on Instagram), works one-one-one during the season with the NFL’s most explosive quarterback, Cam Newton. And Firdose Khan (@dose_9), head trainer at Nine Innovations athlete training facility in Houston, has worked with such athletes as former NBA MVP Derrick Rose and NFLers Arian Foster, Braxton Miller, and Brian Cushing.
Unfortunately, I’m not the 6' 7" son of a Hall of Famer, so I had to resort to desperate devices—like Hennessy, an infamous and inexpensive cognac that, according to one of the two NBA players who recommended it to me, “will give you that Yah! That bounce. That little bit of meanness you need.” The little minibar-sized bottle that I downed 30 minutes into an intense session of dunk attempts on a sweltering day last summer, had no effect other than scorching my esophagus, giving me a headache and releasing from my pores an aura that, as my six-year-old put it that evening, “smells like medicine.”
The player approaches the basket and leaps as they would for a generic dunk. Instead of simply dunking the ball with one or two hands, the player allows their forearm(s) to pass through the basket, hooking their elbow pit on the rim before hanging for a short period of time. Although the dunk was introduced by Vince Carter in the 2000 NBA Slam Dunk contest, Kobe Bryant was filmed performing the dunk two years earlier at an exhibition in the Philippines.[22] Colloquially, the dunk has a variety of names including 'honey dip', 'cookie jar', and 'elbow hook'.
High-Reach Jumps – Are similar to tuck jumps, but instead of brining your knees to your chest, you just reach as high as you can. This is done best under a basketball ring or near a wall so that you can tell how much lower your reach becomes as you fatigue. Try to reach the same height through all repetitions. if you don’t have anything to measure against, that’s fine. Just jump as high as you can each repetition.
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